Home

Czeslaw Milosz. Inspiring desire for God.

Czeslaw Milosz is one of those artists who with their entire personality and creativity

express faith in a world order built on God's plan and in a mysterious way subordinated to the eternal plan of the creation[1].

 

This does not mean that the faith of the writer was strong and stable, we are rather dealing with the inspiring desire of God, consisting in constant search of evidence for His existence. Milosz with remarkable perseverance tried to understand the nature of the Creator and to find confirmation of his actions and presence. The views and attitudes given in childhood will accompany the poet throughout life, contributing to the victory of the religious worldview. They will often result in returning to Him who seems to be silent. The writer will be trying to organize his thoughts to the end, enriching his poetry with metaphysical space. In spite of everything and sometimes against all odds. Denying the rational approach to the world. Because He cannot be embraced by intellect.

What spiritual path does the reader find in the acquis of Milosz? How does the writer perceive and understand God? Did education play a role here? Is it possible to recreate the process of intellectual and spiritual maturation? I will try to answer these (and some other) questions in this article.

 

 Time by the Niewiaża River

 

This road begins in early childhood, when still not mindful Czeslaw suffered from diphtheria. The adult’s memories from that time are captured by Milosz in the autobiographical novel Dolina Issy (The Issa Valley):

 

Mother (...) beat her head against the wall and on her knees went across the room, screaming, begging for mercy. She raised joined hands and vowed: that if (...) Thomas recovers, she will walk a pilgrimage to the miraculous image of Our Lady of Ostra Brama in Vilnius. And the improvement came immediately[2].

Veronica Milosz was a practicing Catholic who could not explain to her son theological truths but with disarming frankness used to say: "Everyone praises God as one can"[3].

Milosz is brought up in an atmosphere of "distributed holiness"[4] which can be explained as a typical mix of faith in God and the demonic powers with pagan imagination. A strong bond with his mother and her strong connection with Catholicism is the first bridge between a young boy from Lithuania and the Creator. He will show it in a poem about his inner experiences when he was running barefoot over the Niewiaża, sensing the Presence:

 

A lot of it was in the air, touched me, embraced me.

Spoke to me by smells of grass, flute voice of oriole,

Twit of swallows[5].

 

In his personal belongings from his childhood there was the image received from the priest, where the Virgin Mary was similar to swallows. In the child's imagination faith mixed with nature and beauty, a sense of aesthetics, which will always be faithful companions of the poet. However, God will always surprise him:

 

For consolation He sent him thoughts which he had never had before. Standing on the lawn he liked to straddle feet, bend down and look through their gate on the other side: so reversed, the park turned out to be a surprise. The fast transformed him as well as what he saw. So did the world stop being what it had been before? No. And both the new and the old existed in him simultaneously. If so, maybe it is not right to bring grievances to God for having arranged everything wrong, because how do we know if one day we wake up and find another surprise[6].

 

As a child Milosz was no stranger to a prayer, as he confesses in the short story Obrachunki (Reckonings), when terrified by illusory specter of the disease in the family, he watched the "fragility and instability of character"[7] of his uncle suffering from tuberculosis, who surrendered completely his debility. Therefore the writer was looking for a helping hand that would give him protection and a sense of support if fate put him to the test:

 

I prayed, I really prayed, begging God for strength, only for strength[8].

 

The idea was to have inner strength, a certain gift of exceeding yourself, persistence in the pursuit of the goal but still preserving the dignity, the ability to overcome his own weaknesses arising from the nature of the character and inherited family traits. His faith was confident and full of hope and the coming years will confirm that he has been heard.

 

Adolescence

 

After these events the evil came and "sowed the weed"[9]. Milosz as a junior high school student was still fascinated by nature (even as a senior poet still painted flowers on margins lines). At the youthful age he studied the natural world by viewing atlases, studying botany, ornithology, and became the curator of the Circle of Nature Lovers. His father was a hunter and used to take him hunting. Comparing to his father, who in those areas exceeded him, brought only pain and lack of faith in his own abilities, and the natural world has lost an initial appeal, pushing him toward the question unde malum?

 

If the law of Nature is murder, if  a strong survives and a weak is killed, and so for millions of millions of years, where is the place for the good God? Why is a man on a tiny star suspended in the void, no more significant than micro-organisms under the microscope, excepting his suffering, the same as the bird with a shot wing and hares devoured by foxes, why is it the only one to be worthy of attention and Redemption?[10]

 

His understanding of God is, as of most people at this age, full of a child's imagination in which God creates a harmonious world and the paradise continues today. But he lacks the understanding of the theological truth of original sin and its consequences, which would explain the violence in nature. The first sin, according to the mind of St. Augustine and St. John Paul II, is to love yourself until the negation of God. The denial of the existence of the supreme being creates a temptation to replace God, to judge him by the personal discretion of what is good and what is bad. That is why all the human tragedies happen, including totalitarian regimes. The man knew good and evil, and thus claims the right to the recognition, what is the best for him and even for others. Unfortunately, he does not have such a depth of knowledge. Lost in conjecture, causes suffering, but above all, he cannot answer the question - where does evil come from? The tendency to deny the existence of the Creator has its roots in the philosophies which appeared after the Age of Enlightenment and in various forms continues to this day.

 

What most deeply represents humanity was rejected, that is, the notion of 'human nature' as 'reality', replacing it with 'a product of thinking' liberally shaped and changed according to the circumstances[11].

 

In junior high school Milosz will discover some other laws that rule the world of adult believers and he will never accept them. Meeting with the religion teacher - priest Chomski, a rigorous man, and weekly masses in elite company surprised the young man for whom faith was something pure and full of sincerity: "How can it be, that their God is also my God?"[12]. That astonishment and somewhat defiance will lead to incessant attempts to understand and explore religious ideas and eventually to discover that evil mastered not only nature, but human as well. The concept of God's goodness mixes with the conviction of the reign of evil for Milosz, which he cannot explain. However, despite many hesitations and disappointments the poet does not abandon the idea of ​​God as Providence, and calls himself a secret eater of Manichean poisons[13]. According to the priest Jerzy Szymik, Manichaeism came from a deep sensitivity and willingness to explain the suffering:

 

Stuck neither in doctrinal intricacies, in theological disputes about the details nor the heretical alley[14] .

 

Father Jozef Tischner even says that following "the footsteps of the devil"[15], thinking nearly obsessively about evil, the author will experience a profound spiritual transformation

In 1935, Milosz is in Paris and visits a shelter for the unemployed Poles in Levallois-Perret, where he discovers terrible places, filthy barracks and garages and people exhausted because of misery, helpless and reaching for alcohol. This will result in rebellion against the Champs-Elysees, which in the poem Canto Levallois  turns into compassion and a prayer- request:

 

God, have mercy on Levallois,

Look under the smoke poisoned chestnuts,

Give moments of happiness the weak and drunk,

Your strong hand in care has them.

(...)

Darkness. Silence. A distant bridge is playing.

Wind in the kainite trees is blowing like a stream.

Over the emptiness of the earth, the human race[16].

 

In the same year a breakthrough came in Milosz's worldview, which was influenced by his uncle, Oscar Milosz. Their meeting resulted in original and unorthodox theological and poetic concepts associated with mysticism and metaphysics of light[17]. The poet will eternalize it in the poem Czeladnik (Journeyman):

 

Biography of this man is, in my opinion, so important,

As biographies of saints and prophets,

Because it goes beyond the so-called literary phenomena[18].

 

The meeting will result in a change in his current thinking. It will let Milosz find the meaning of his existence as a poet, which was given to him by the Creator Himself. Oscar Milosz reached for the Bible, and especially to the prophets, and identified the writer with them. He believed that this kind of talent is a gift from God, planned from the beginning. The poet is someone who sees more and mediates between God and men:

 

The stay of each of us makes us suppose that we were burdened with a mission, and that everyone has to fulfill this task, that one is there to do, and it makes sense only in deed, only the deed justifies[19].

 

From that moment in Milosz's poetry more and more references to the faith can be found. The writer radically exceeded his earlier hesitation, presenting us a candid picture of a man caught up in the body, who deeply feels his smallness and weakness, but still inclining towards God:

 

However, I could not distinguish him from the rhythm of my blood

I felt some false, by prayer heading to the spirit world.

I was not a spiritual man, but the man embraced by the body[20]

 

He shows his spiritual path, internal and very personal experience, true search of the one who hides. He senses an element pushing toward evil; however he has a strong belief in a divine force. Milosz becomes a defender of what gives „hope , floats against the current of futility"[21], he believes deeply in the existence of "beyond" - beyond the comprehension of the human mind, beyond life and death. He becomes certain that nothing happens by chance, that everything he has and what he is, hides a profound value and meaning. As if looking at his own reflection, he writes:

 

And how do you believe that your heart rate of impatient blood

Fulfills the plans of the silent God[22]

 

From that moment he also defends the truth and sees huge sense of each work. Condemns lying and "only << beautiful sentences>> "[23]," he doesn’t agree to "a building of culture stripped of spiritual values"[24]. He warns poets against weaknesses:

 

And I see you, the artists, who have forgotten,

That the truth of man is simple and you should express it straight[25].

 

The writer cannot afford to deviate from what is fundamental, the truth in a man and about the man is the only determinant. Without it nothing makes no sense, and any activity becomes a mask and a stage. He strongly denies nihilism, which says "no purpose, meaning, significance and value of life"[26], he does not agree to the emptiness and human subjecting to accident or coincidence of being:

 

Terrible is the boredom and sadness of the world, rejecting the grace of God[27].

 

Sincerely opposed to creativity understood as "an exercising of style"[28], he defends clear conscience and acting in harmony with yourself, proposes a complete rejection of lies that torment and do not allow to be fully human, suppressing his dignity. He encourages to look from a different perspective, seeing in every human being a part of - the presence of God, which gives the possibility of delight over the "untold grace of the sinful"[29], because "what would we become if the hunger of bending knees and the rapture were taken away"[30].

Milosz, as Andrew Franaszek writes, "sees around him (and especially in himself!) religious hunger, the need for faith, which often wants very easy and fast experiences"[31]. He will meet the need to share their thoughts in the Traktat moralny (Moral treaty), in which in a penetrating way says to the reader:

 

You live here, now. Hic et nunc.

You have one life. One point.

What you manage to do, it will remain[32].

 

He convinces of the illusion of concern for the future, paying attention to now that irrevocably passes but is the most important. He also writes about good distance to everything written and the discipline of elimination, which is the rejection of what is needless, contrary to the beliefs and moral sense. Ending the writing with his characteristic, humorous irony, he states:

A rescue just in you.

It is simply maybe health

Of mind, heart balance,

Because sometimes a simple medication helps[33].

 

The poet seems to slowly discover that "ethics, faith and art do not conflict with each other, but complement"[34].

 

Faith, hope, love

 

During World War II, in 1943, Milosz writes Swiat. Poema naiwne (World. Poema naïve), that is the return to the world of memories and escape from occurring reality. The persona becomes a little boy for a moment. The existence of an element of a child is a guarantee of the possibility of delight over the world, the discovery of a sincere "I". An adult somehow loses purity of heart and can perceive the reality only through the prism of his own "I want to, I expect, I think." In addition there are also assessments, imposed or their own, and lies, in which a man starts to believe before noticing. The child in Milosz is the part of a man who desires love, a mother and "steaming soup"[35] - an unnamed sense of security, which is more felt than defined. He also desires the return to the carefree time of nature and space, mildly reminding of The One who created it, when the world was still here or there - shown with a little finger. It turns out that this is the best piece of man, because it allows for faith without analytical understanding, definitions and theories. This property, if forgotten, closes the way to know God.

The three most important texts of the volume – Wiara, nadzieja i miłość (Faith, Hope and Love) - are a reference to the biblical tradition and the proof of the author’s wisdom. The belief in everything that surrounds us is necessary because it is related to the meaning of life, that there is nothing that would be deprived of it, even "stones exist to hurt our legs"[36]. The poet passes the importance of the existence of evil, discovers that everything has its other side - in nature and people – which, however, does not prejudge anything. The choice is up to a man. It cannot exist without hope. The last poem of the cycle – Miłość (Love) - talks about the perception of another human being. Rejecting all that is negative and critical, we can discover love for others. And it does not remain of any effect. The change is immediate - healing the heart of worries and a completely new view on the world in which the "bird (...) and the tree say: my friend"[37]. Milosz discovers a piece of divinity in himself- love and understanding lead to a change in the perception of the world and people. He passed a similar spiritual experience in the poem Dar (Gift).

 

Years 1951-1959

 

The break with communism, radical rejection of political lies, and thus, persecution in the next years, return to the family, living in France and then in the United States - all this gave him a sense of security and awareness that he was on the right track. By staying in Berkeley, lectures and the discovery of his passion for teaching, he could get rid of the toxins of the past. He enjoyed the gift of peace and the silence of family. He still thought about God, asking him:

 

Give me a new vision and hearing so that I can know the world and praise the beauty of Your works.

My weakness is immense, day and night I remember my mistakes.

Thank you for moments of despair, because without them I would not understand that I am nothing unless I turn to you.

Protect me from the one who is the Prince of Lies.

His voice is sweet and penetrates me when he talks about the truth, justice and humanity.

His voice is hard and leaves me defenseless when he turns his scorn against me.

Wise and seeing clearly, barren forever, calls to

follow him to the end of [? land?] of eternal emptiness[38].

 

Man systematically poisoned by lie needs to work it off. There is no better way than to pray and talk about faith, as he used to do with Karl Jaspers and Albert Camus at that time. The latter confessed that as an atheist he sent children to communion, to get to know the biblical tradition[39].

Encountered people and their views really influenced Milosz, as mentioned earlier Oscar Milosz. Undeniably such person was also Jeanne Hersch. The poet admitted that he had learnt a lot from her. Some of it is worth quoting:

 

1. Reason is a great divine gift and you should believe in his ability to know the world.

2. Truthfulness is the proof of freedom and we can see the slavery thanks to lie.

3. Regardless of the fate of religious denominations you should keep the "philosophical belief", that is, faith in transcendence, as an essential feature of our humanity.

4. In your own life, do not give in to despair because of your errors and sins, because the past is not closed and receives the meaning given to it by your subsequent actions[40].

 

Berkeley, 1960-1986

 

In autumn 1960,the Milosz family move to Berkeley, where they finally find their place - a house and a stable job. The author releases volume Król Popiel i inne wiersze(King Popiel and other poems) in which he writes:

 

And if Pascal was not saved

and the narrow hands, in which a cross was inserted,

he, all as a dead swallow

in the dust, in the clatter of poisonous cerulean-blue flies?

And if they all kneeling with folded hands,

Millions of them, billions of them, there ended up, where their illusion?

I will never agree. I will give them a crown.

The human mind is wonderful, mouth is powerful

And the call is so great that the paradise must open[41].

 

This incredible confession contains a great emotional tension and extreme faith in the power of human reason. We have an author’s dialogue of his inner self - doubting. Two opposing forces and rights: the thought of unbelief, giving a momentary feeling of meaninglessness of life, seemingly should lead to resignation, however, will result completely opposite. It wakes in Milosz firmly rooted belief in man, man's mental abilities, and in the power of words, able to open up even the gates of heaven. The writer often admitted that he saw in himself the submission of several personalities, inside voices, which often manifest themselves in poems or statements.

In 1965, he wrote a poem Gucio zaczarowany (Gucio enchanted) - wanting to embrace the world from above, with his characteristic humility confesses that his consciousness "does not understand the rules of the snake and the tree"[42], so "reads Thomas Aquinas or Śmierć Boga (Death Of God) (a Protestant work)”[43]. But his desire for God is so strong that in the poem Veni creator from the volume Miasto bez imienia (City without a name) it becomes a prayer-request to the Holy Spirit to come and reveal himself. The request is justified by the senses - "I need visible signs"[44]. However, this argument is instantly refuted "but I understand that the signs can only be human"[45]. He asks for sending him a man in whom he will be able to see God. He does not ask for it for himself (it is a feature of the entire works of Milosz): recognition of his littleness is accompanied by unwavering desire to know Him.

An important element of Milosz's work is very personal confession of his own weaknesses. The poet was tormented by continuous remorse, a sense of "guilt and shame"[46]. He was aware, however, what was the reason of this dilemma:

 

Thus I believed

in Original Sin,

which is nothing else

but the first victory of the ego[47].

 

He also made a discovery and confessed to the letter addressee - Raja that he needed God who loves and understands the weaknesses, leans over the wounded man. That is why he was no stranger to prayer for the coming of the Kingdom, fight and selfish self-hatred[48].

During the illness of his wife Czeslaw Milosz will be a frequent visitor or even a good friend of God. He looks for His help and crushed by the weight of suffering, fervently prays, like Job, who asked: „Shall we receive good from God, and shall we not receive evil?”[49]. The poet writes: "It is bitter to praise God in misery, thinking that he did not save, although he could"[50] - about the illness of his son and wife. He is faithful to this path stubbornly and persistently. In the town of Pornic on the Atlantic he raves the church of Madonna of Salvation and with humble sincerity writes:

 

Indeed, the ocean makes us what we really are:

Children who for a moment have the wisdom of the shipmasters[51].

 

Examination of conscience and familiarizing himself weaker than usual will be released in the zeal of the translator of the Book of Wisdom, Psalms and the Book of Job. Reflections on the Biblical pages were included by the poet in verses of Lektura[52] (Reading) encouraging to reading the original Gospel. However, the fascination with the Bible is revealed primarily in the discovery that those events were happening only yesterday, but today they mean the same and continue. Milosz understands time in two ways, metaphysically and linearly: "eternal moment is one of many earthly moments, it is eternal, but at the same time" continues here, is a part of this world. According to the writer, man naturally desires God, because instinctively senses that only such knowledge will help to find answers to rankling questions. Without him, the world is sinking into despair. The poem Oeconomia divina can be interpreted in terms of feeling the need of the Absolute. Creator shows people how they depend on the truth the most severely when "he leaves them conclusions and says nothing"[53]. Later, the author desperately appeals to his brothers in humanity:

 

Beg, let us be given back

The second space[54].

 

The gift of old age

 

The writer, seeking to merge thoughts, contains them in one piece, which is a summary of achievements or an attempt of it. In 2001 Traktat teologiczny (Theological treaty) was written. Here is how Milosz justifies writing it:

Why theology? Because the first is to be the first. And this is the concept of truth[55].

A similar thought was put by St. Augustine: "If God is in the first place, everything else is in the right place"[56]. Milosz confides his spiritual state, the only objective he sets is his salvation. These are the thoughts of an experienced man, an expression of gratitude situated in poetry, a kind of confession from the years of youthful rebellion and "selfish pride"[57]. The writer confesses that he does not possess the truth fully, and theological knowledge was unclear for him. He firmly believes that he did not understand everything. Although the Traktat (Treaty) has a rather sad tone, the poet says in its last verses that will still remain faithful:

 

In the distance I follow you, ashamed to come closer[58].

 

Milosz extremely persistently attempted explanation of the sense of simultaneous existence of good and evil to descendants. Thanks to this co-existence we can distinguish one from the other, the truth from imitation, the faith from unbelief:

 

Nonexistence is spreading and incinerating the areas of being

Decked in the colors and shapes that pretend existence[59].

 

Poems written at the end of life are the final chords of life journey, in which the desire for God played such an important role. At that time, among other things, a poem- petition Niebo (Heaven) was written to "Unspoken, our Father in heaven"[60] for forgiveness that he "played with the rules of the world"[61] The final quoted text will be Dziękczynny (Thanksgiving):

 

You gifted me, God - wizard.

I am grateful to You for the good and the bad.

In every thing on earth perpetual light shine

As of now so the day after my death[62].

 

Conclusion

 

This is how Tamara and Leszek Kołakowski recall joint meetings:

 

Anything Milosz said, either they were trivial and seemingly insignificant issues or humorous and cynical remarks, we, His interlocutors, knew that His words belied the reflections or the nagging feeling about eternal and most important things. Therefore conversation with Milosz was never trivial even if these eternal issues were not raised directly[63].

 

For Milosz the recognition happens extremely sensually, but senses are not the only tools used during this process. The method used by the poet is to reach the truth through discourse with himself, a reflection on the condition and the meaning of human existence, of the world in terms of society and considering the problem of good and evil in nature. An important role is played by intuition. As Leszek Kolakowski says:

 

The kind of epistemological absolute, which is assumed, is unimportant (cogito, revelation, pure phenomena, sensory impressions, the world of everyday life), to embrace the totality of the human experience of the world. Important is the desire to reach the depths "of all worlds", signifying the eternal human need - to seek and know the truth[64].

 

Milosz found no comprehensive answers to questions posed himself either in philosophy or in any other field of science. Despite the lack of rational arguments he decided to go toward faith, exceeding the possibilities of the mind. He did not reject any other explanations that were not Christian.

The desire of God in the life and work of Czeslaw Milosz is extremely inspiring. The effort to reach the truth , consistent belief despite downs, doubts and experiences. Paraphrasing the words of Edith Stein, one can say that life of Milosz was a long and dark road; stony and hard, he was often powerless. Reading the biography of the poet, however, I get the impression that God was right there, and Milosz left us an ardent human desire for God forever.

 

Translation Royal Academy of English

 

 


[1] Zarębianka Z., Wtajemniczenia (w) Miłosza, Kraków 2014, p.178.

[2] Miłosz C., Dolina Issy, Kraków 1998, p. 251.

[3] Miłosz C., Rodzinna Europa, Kraków 2001, p. 100

[4] Vallee L., Kochaj dzikiego łabędzia, transl. Heydel M., ”Tygodnik Powszechny” 2001, no. 26

[5] Miłosz C., Wiersze ostatnie, Kraków 2006, p.8

[6] Miłosz C., Dolina Issy, Kraków 1998, p.226

[7] Franaszek A., Miłosz: biografia, Kraków 2011, p.40

[8] Ibidem, p.40

[9] Biblia Tysiąclecia, Nowy Testament, Mt 13, 39, Poznań 1987

[10] Miłosz C., Metafizyczna pauza, Kraków 1989, p.36

[11] Jan Paweł II, Pamięć i tożsamość, Kraków 2005, p. 20.

[12] Miłosz C., Rodzinna Europa, Kraków 2001, p. 94.

[13]  Miłosz C., Gdzie wschodzi słońce i kędy zapada, in: Wiersze, Kraków 1993, vol. 3,  p. 291.

[14] Szymik J., Poezja  jako traktat teologiczny, ”Więź” 2001, no. 8

[15] Ibidem.

[16]  Miłosz C., Pieśń Levallois, in:  Wiersze, op. cit., vol. 1, p. 125

[17]  Bernacki M., Czeladnik i mistrz: Czesława Miłosza spotkania z Oskarem Władysławem Miłoszem, „Postscriptum Polonistyczne” 2011, no. 2(8), p. 191.

[18] Miłosz C.: Wiersze wszystkie,  Znak, Kraków 2011, p. 1277.

[19] Miłosz C., Tajemnica Miguela Mañary, ”Pion” 1938, no. 17, p. 2.

[20] Miłosz C., Ksiądz Ch., po latach, in: Wiersze, op. cit., vol. 3, p. 190-191.

[21] Adamska I., Dar, wezwanie, obietnica, Kraków 2002, p. 24.

[22] Miłosz C., Ksiądz Ch. …, op. cit., p. 194

[23] Bereś S., Ostatnia wileńska plejada: szkice o poezji kręgu Żagarów, Warszawa 1990, p. 270.

[24] Ibidem.

[25] Franaszek A., op. cit., p. 279. Miłosz C., poem not released from the year 1937 , Beincke Library.

[26] Nihilizm, pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nihilizm.

[27] Miłosz C., Przygody młodego umysłu, Kraków 2003, p. 182.

[28] Franaszek A., op. cit., p. 279.

[29] Miłosz C., Brama wieczoru, in: Wiersze, op. cit., vol. 1, p. 112.

[30] Ibidem, p. 112.

[31] Franaszek A. , op. cit., p. 279.

[32] Miłosz, Traktat moralny, in: Wiersze, op. cit., vol. 1, p. 287.

[33] Ibidem, p. 296.

[34] Franaszek A., op. cit., p. 279.

[35] Miłosz C., Jadalnia, w: tegoż, Wiersze, op. cit., vol. 1, p. 175.

[36] Miłosz C., Wiara, in: Wiersze, op. cit., vol. 1, p. 179.

[37] Miłosz C., Miłość, in: Wiersze, op. cit.,vol. 1, p. 180.

[38]  Franaszek A. , Miłosz…, op. cit., p. 497. Miłosz C. , not finished  poem „Daj mi na nowo”, Beincke Library.

[39] Franaszek A., Miłosz…, op. cit., p. 496.

[40] Miłosz C., Czego nauczyłem się od Jeanne Hersch, in: O podróżach w czasie, Kraków 2004, p. 159.

[41] Miłosz C., Po ziemi naszej, in: Wiersze wszystkie, Kraków 2011, p. 511.

[42] Compare Miłosz C., Wiersze wszystkie, op. cit., p.522.

[43] Miłosz C.,Dużo śpię, in: Wiersze wszystkie, op. cit., p. 537.

[44] Miłosz C., Veni creator, in: Wiersze wszystkie, op. cit., p. 563

[45] Ibidem.

[46] Miłosz C., List,in: Wiersze wszystkie, op. cit.,p. 599.

[47] Ibidem, p. 600.

[48] Compare ibidem, p. 599.

[49] Biblia Tysiąclecia, Pismo Święte Starego i Nowego Testamentu, Stary Testament, Ks. Hioba 2, 10, Poznań 1987.

[50]  Miłosz C., Przed Majestatem, in: Wiersze, op. cit., vol. 3, p. 39.

[51]  Miłosz C., Kroniki miasta Pornic,in: Wiersze, op. cit.,vol. 2, p. 113.

[52] One of Milosz’s poems encouraging to read in original languages

[53]  Miłosz C., Oeconomia divina, in: Wiersze, op. cit., vol. 2, p. 224.

[54] Miłosz C., Druga przestrzeń, in: Wiersze wszystkie, op. cit., 1217. p. …..

[55] Miłosz C., Traktat teologiczny, „Kontrapunkt” 2001, no. 11-12.

[56] http://encyklopediaksiazek.cba.pl/Wiki/index.Św.Augustyn.

[57] Miłosz C., Odległość, in: Wiersze, op. cit., p. 44.

[58] Miłosz C., Odległość, in: Wiersze, op. cit., vol. 3. p. 44.

[59] Miłosz C., Poznanie dobra i zła, in: Wiersze, op. cit., vol. 3. p. 135-136.

[60] Miłosz C., Niebo, in: Ostatnie wiersze, Kraków 2006, p. 69.

[61] Miłosz C., Jak mogłem, in: Ostatnie wiersze, op. cit., p. 67.

[62] Miłosz C., Dziękczynny, in: Wiersze, op. cit., vol.3., p. 236.

[63] Kołakowska T., Kołakowski L., Rozmowy, in: Obecność: wspomnienia o Czesławie Miłoszu, Ed. A. Romaniuk, Warszawa 2013, p. 156

[64] Grzegorczyk A., Blask prawdy, in: E. Stein, Byt skończony a byt wieczny, Kraków 1995.

09 February 2017